Of the city of Nishapur, at an elevation of 5100 ft., in 36° 28' N., 58° 20' E.), where the famous mines are which have supplied the world with turquoises for at least 2000 years.
Turquoises have been found near Wangaratta, in Victoria, and mining operations are being carried on in that state.
The earth is conceived of as a round disk, slightly sloping towards the south, surrounded on three sides by the sea, but on the north by a high mountain of turquoises; behind this is the abode of the blest, a sort of inferior paradise, inhabited by the Egyptians who were saved from drowning with Pharaoh in the Red Sea, and whom the Mandaeans look upon as their ancestors, Pharaoh himself having been their first high priest and king.
In New Mexico are found turquoises and a few garnets; it seems probable that turquoises were mined by the Aztecs.
Other important articles of export, all to Russia, are cotton, carpets, shawls and turquoises, the last from the mines near Nishapur.