He took the field against the Turks (1301, 1310) and against the Grand Catalan Company (1305), but was repeatedly defeated.
Two years later the same traitors again conspired against the king, at the very time when the Turks had defeated Sobieski's unsupported lieutenant, Luzecki, at Czertwertyworska and captured the fortress of Kamieniec (KamenetzPodolskiy), the key of south-eastern Poland, while Lemberg was only saved by the valour of Elias Lancki.
In October 1676, in his entrenched camp at Zaravno, he with 13,000 men withstood 80,000 Turks for three weeks, and recovered by special treaty two-thirds of the Ukraine, but without Kamieniec (treaty of Zaravno, Oct.
After resisting every attempt of the French court to draw him into the antiHabsburg league, Sobieski signed the famous treaty of alliance with the emperor Leopold against the Turks (March 31, 1683), which was the prelude to the most glorious episode of his life, the relief of Vienna and the liberation of Hungary from the Ottoman yoke.
But in 1570 the island was taken by the Turks; and Antonio Davila, the father of the historian, had to leave it, despoiled of all he possessed.
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