A frame of wood or steel, erected at the shaft mouth, and rarely employed except for deep shafts of small cross-section or when the mine cars (tubs) are small, as in many parts of Europe.
Generally it is done by horse or mechanical traction, ground upon railways, the " trams " or " tubs," as the pit convey= wagons are called, being where possible brought up to ante.
In the main roads to the pit when the distance is not considerable horse traction may be used, a train of 6 to i 5 vehicles being drawn by one horse, but more generally the hauling or, as it is called in the north of England, the leading of the trains of tubs is effected by mechanical traction.
In the first, which is that generally used in Northumberland and Durham, a single line of rails is used, the loaded tubs being drawn " out bye," i.e.
The main rope, which draws out the loaded tubs, coils upon one drum, and passes near the floor over guide sheaves placed about 20 ft.
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