Macaulay terms, him, justly enough, "the father of modern Toryism, of Toryism modified to suit an order of things in which the House of Commons is the most powerful body in the state."
The same year he introduced a Test Oath by which all holding office or seats in either House of Parliament were to declare resistance to the royal power a crime, and promise to abstain from all attempts to alter the government of either church or state; but this extreme measure of retrograde toryism was successfully opposed by wiser statesmen.
In short, the country was already thoroughly democratic in spirit, while Federalism stood for obsolescent social ideas and was infected with political "Toryism" fatally against the times.
Toryism), was extinct," but as a sentiment it remained for some time longer, and may even be said to exist to-day.
When George Grenville, whose principles leaned to Toryism, quarrelled with the 'court, Wedderburn affected to regard him as his leader in politics.