In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.
Certainly it is due to this very much more than we commonly think, and the more it is due to this the more do moral therapeutics rise in possibility and importance " (Literature and Dogma, pp. 143-144).
The moral therapeutics consists in the influence of a powerful will over others.
Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."
Medicina: sc. ars, art of healing, from mederi, to heal) may be used very widely, to include Pathology, the theory of the causation of disease, or, very narrowly, to mean only the drug or form of remedy prescribed by the physician - this being more properly the subject of Therapeutics (q.v.) and Pharmacology.