Then she sticks her pin into it when it struggles - that is the conge and it always comes from her.
But we know that the pressure of the barbarians began to be felt seriously in the later part of the 2nd century, and after long struggles the whole or almost the whole district east of Rhine and north of Danube was lost - seemingly all within one short period - about A.D.
In the continual struggles between Pisa and Genoa some of these princes took the side of the latter.
During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries Parma had its full share of the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles, in which it mainly took the part of the former, and also carried on repeated hostilities with Borgo San Donnino and Piacenza.
In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).