168-170), which subsequently became known as the great auk or garefowl (q.v.); though the French equivalent Pingouin 2 preserves its old application, the word penguin is by English ornithologists always used for certain birds inhabiting the Southern Ocean, called by the French Manchots, the Spheniscidae of ornithologists.
Penguins bite savagely when molested, but are easily trained and display considerable intelligence, The Spheniscidae have been divided into at least eight genera, but three, or at most four, seem to be all that are needed, and ' The pterylographical characters of the penguins are well described by A.
Watson, " Report on the Anatomy of the Spheniscidae," Challenger Reports, 1883.
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