The Monteponi Company smelts its own zinc, but the lead is almost all smelted at the furnaces of Pertusola near Spezia.
Copper is smelted in Ardennes and Pas-de-Calais.
It makes excellent charcoal, especially for metallurgic processes; the Sussex iron, formerly regarded as the best produced in Britain, was smelted with oak charcoal from the great woods of the adjacent Weald, until they became so thinned that the precious fuel was no longer obtainable.
These ores were worked by the ancients, but so inefficiently that their spoilheaps can be smelted again with profit.
Lead ores are smelted in the reverberatory furnace, the ore-hearth, and the blast-furnace.