During the Thirty Years' War the town was taken by Mansfield in 1618 and not recaptured by the Imperialists till 1621.
It had a full share in the several Irish wars, being sacked by Edward Bruce (1315) and by O'Neill (1538); and it was taken by the Irish and recaptured by the English in the wars of 1641, and was occupied later by the forces of James II.
He recaptured Jerusalem, at the siege of which Bar-Cochebas himself was slain.
In February 1409 Harlech was also recaptured, and Owen's wife, daughter and grandchildren were taken prisoners.
Surprised by the Spaniards in 1597, the city was recaptured from them after a long siege by Henry IV.