A recently discovered fossil group, the Pteridospermae have characters intermediate between the Ptendophyta and the more primitive seedplants.
The subject of palaeontological botany has been advanced by the researches of both botanists and geologists.
In recent years the science of vegetable palaeontology has been given the distinct name of Palaeobotany, so that " palaeontology e' among biologists mainly refers to zoology; but historically the two cannot be disconnected.
In the meantime the foundations of palaeobotany were being laid (1804) by Ernst Friedrich von Schlotheim (1764-1832), (1811) by Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761-1838) and (1838) by Theophile Brongniart (1801-1876).
His activity was by no means confined to palaeobotany, but extended into all branches of botany, more particularly anatomy and phanerogamic taxonomy.