The first, for a memoir on the construction of a clepsydra for measuring time exactly at sea, he gained at the age of twenty-four; the second, for one on the physical cause of the inclination of the planetary orbits, he divided with his father; and the third, for a communication on the tides, he shared with Euler, Colin Maclaurin and another competitor.
The orbits are always open behind, never being surrounded by bone.
The squamosals form the posterior outer margin of the orbits and are frequently continued into two lateral downward processes across the temporal fossa.
The orbits of earth and moon are elliptical, so that the earth is sometimes nearer, sometimes farther away from the sun, and the same is the case with the moon in relation to the earth.
It is also remarkable that all the great planets and many of the small ones have their orbits very nearly in the same plane, and nearly circular in form.