Charles also had all towns and large villages fortified; and being a man of affairs he set about undoing the effect of the treaty of Brtigny by alliances with Flanders, whose heiress he married to his brother Philip, duke of Burgundy; with Henry, king of Castile, and Ferdinand of Portugal, who possessed fine navies; and, finally, with the emperor Charles IV.
By the end of that time the joint action of the British and American navies had driven the pirates off the sea, and when they took to marauding on shore the Spanish governors did the rest.
The peace set back the boundaries of Russia from the Danube to the Pruth; it secured the free navigation of the first of these rivers; it opened the Black Sea to thy commercial navies of the world, closing it to vessels of war, and forbidding the establishment of arsenals upon its shores.
Under his weak successor (Rolt, 1677-1682), the English waters, the value of which had now been proved, became the battle-ground between the rival navies, and for some years Bombay lay at the mercy of both.
While Spanish navies were exploring the ocean, and Spanish paladins were overturning empires, Charles V.