These cast in their lot with the mutineers, and commenced by killing their officers.
On the 16th of August he defeated the mutineers at Bithur.
The mass of the mutineers summoned Ali to the Caliphate, and compelled even Talha and Zobair to do him homage.
The troops sent against them, under General Pepe, himself a Carbonaro, sympathized with the mutineers, and the king, being powerless to resist, granted the constitution (13th of July), which he swore on the altar to observe.
It was converted into a fort by the mutineers in 1857, and after its capture by the British was of importance in connexion with the military operations around Lucknow.