That the division of labour, which may seem to disintegrate the calling of the physician, really unites it, is well seen in the clinical laboratories which were initiated in the later 19th century, and which are destined to a great future.
Of practical instruction there was none other than that to be gained in a few private laboratories and in the shops of apothecaries.
A department of public health was formed within the precincts of the Local Government Board; government laboratories were established, and machinery was devised for the notification of infectious diseases.
The general scope of the polytechnics is to give instruction both in general knowledge and special crafts or trades by means of classes, lectures and laboratories, instructive entertainments and exhibitions, and facilities for bodily and mental exercise (gymnasia, libraries, &c.).
The Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, was founded in 1799, maintains a library and laboratories and promotes research in connexion with the experimental sciences.