When the association of kinsmen failed, the voluntary associations - gilds - appeared as substitutes.
The people of the district to which the candidate belonged were called together; his qualifications for the privileges about to be conferred upon him were inquired into; and, if he were deemed fitted and worthy to receive them, his chief, his father, or one of his near kinsmen presented him with a shield and a lance.
In their heathen days the English were not wont to massacre their beaten kinsmen as they massacred the unfortunate Cdt.
It was probably forgotten at the time (though Lord Kimberley afterwards publicly stated it) that one of the chief reasons why the Gladstone government had granted the retrocession of the Transvaal after Majuba, was the fear that the Cape Colonial Dutch would join their kinsmen if the war continued.
Part of the state, and their near kinsmen, the Apaches, to the south.