Moreover, the Jacobitism of the non-jurors provoked a state policy of repression in 1715 and 1745, and fostered the growth of new Hanoverian congregations, served by clergy episcopally ordained but amenable to no bishop, who qualified themselves under the act of 1712.
Owing to a variety of causes Jacobitism began to lose ground after the accession of George I.
Northumberland was thus a Jacobite stronghold; and in Manchester, where in 1777 according to an American observer Jacobitism "is openly professed," a Jacobite rendezvous known as "John Shaw's Club" lasted from 1735 to 1892.
The romantic side of Jacobitism was stimulated by Sir Walter Scott's Waverley, and many Jacobite poems were written during the 19th century.
His Jacobitism had already been betrayed in a tripos speech which brought him into trouble; and he was now deprived of his fellowship and became a non-juror.