(1898), pp. i sqq., 169 sqq.; Hibbert Journal (April 1904); Keilinschr.
Schmidt, Hibbert Journal (January 1908).
In Babylonian mythology "the old serpent goddess ` the lady Nina' was transformed into the embodiment of all that was hostile to the powers of heaven" (Sayce's Hibbert Lectures, p. 283), and was confounded with the dragon Tiamat, "a terrible monster, reappearing in the Old Testament writings as Rahab and Leviathan, the principle of chaos, the enemy of God and man" (Tennant's The Fall and Original Sin, p. 43), and according to Gunkel (Schopfung and Chaos, p. 383) "the original of the ` old serpent ' of Rev. xii.
Opposed to Ormuzd, the author of all good, is Ahriman, the source of all evil; and the opposition runs through the whole universe (D'Alviella's Hibbert Lectures, pp. 158-164).