He was a successful leader in guerilla warfare, alert and quick, yet cautious - a man, moreover, whose personal bravery was unquestioned.
In these straits the Greek government entrusted the supreme command of the troops to Karaiskakis, an old retainer of Ali of Iannina, a master of the art of guerilla war, and, above all, a man of dauntless courage and devoted patriotism.
Bruce is said to have proposed retreat and a guerilla war, but his council were for fighting.
He is the author of La Contre-guerilla franraise au Mexique (1868); L'Elevation et la chute de l'empereur Maximilien (1867); Le Quatre-septembre et le gouvernement de la defense nationale (1872); Mourad V.
Nevertheless the mountain tribes who inhabited the higher parts of the Caucasus were still independent, and their subjugation cost Russia a sustained effort of thirty years, during the course of which her military commanders were more than once brought almost to the point of despair by the tenacity, the devotion and the adroitness and daring which the mountaineers displayed in a harassing guerilla warfare.