The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.
Havet's contention (in La Modernite des prophetes) that Gog represents the Parthians (40 B.C.) has little or nothing in its support.
The following chapters (xxxiv.- xxxix.) are devoted to reconstruction: Edom, the detested enemy of Israel, is to be crushed; the nation, politically raised from the dead, with North and South united (xxxvii.), is to be established under a Davidide king; a final assault, made by Gog, is to be successfully met, 4 and then the people are to dwell in their own land in peace for ever; this Gog section is regarded by some as the beginning of Jewish apocalyptic writing.
15 it is distinctly said that Gog is to come from the recesses of Saphon.
8, and in Ezekiel's prophecy concerning Gog and Magog, where the wonders of fire and blood named in Joel ii.