The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.
Havet's contention (in La Modernite des prophetes) that Gog represents the Parthians (40 B.C.) has little or nothing in its support.
15 it is distinctly said that Gog is to come from the recesses of Saphon.
8, and in Ezekiel's prophecy concerning Gog and Magog, where the wonders of fire and blood named in Joel ii.
But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.