The most important group is the Galapagos Islands.
The most northerly limit of the penguins' range in the Atlantic is Tristan d'Acunha, and in the Indian Ocean Amsterdam Island, but they also occur off the Cape of Good Hope and along the coast of Australia, as well as on the south and east of New Zealand, while in the Pacific one species at least extends along the west coast of South America and to the Galapagos; but north of the equator none are found.
Mendiculus, which occurs in the Galapagos, and therefore has the most northerly range of the whole group, alone needs notice here.
These marine lizards occur only in the Galapagos Islands, where they are never seen more than 20 yds.
A land species belonging to the allied genus Conolophus also occurs in the Galapagos, which differs from most of its kind in forming burrows in the ground.