In the straits joining it with the Atlantic and the Black Sea the fresher surface waters of these seas flow inwards to assist in making good the loss by evaporation at the surface of the Mediterranean, and in both cases dense water makes its way outwards along the bottom of the channels, the outflowing currents being less in volume and delivery than the inflowing.
North of the North Atlantic maximum the waters become steadily fresher as latitude increases until the channels opening into the Arctic basin are reached.
Its water is considerably fresher than the Black Sea, varying from 1.55 to 0.68 70.
The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
The bottom waters have almost uniformly a salinity of 34.8 per mille, corresponding closely with the bottom waters of the South Atlantic, but fresher than those of the North Atlantic.
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