From 1603 to 1656 we have Gardiners History (England, 10 vols.; Civil ~Var, 4 vols.; Commonwealth and Protectorate, 3 vols.), and to 1714 Rankes 1-listory of England (6 vols.; see also Firths Cromwell and Cromwells Army, and various editions of texts and monographs).
The eastern is indented by a series of broad arms of the sea - the firths of Forth and Tay, Moray and Dornoch firths - but is otherwise relatively unbroken.
The breakdown of the watershed between the Firths of Clyde and Forth exposes southern Perthshire, the counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, and nearly the whole of Fife to the clouds and rains of the west, and their climates are consequently wetter than those of any others of the eastern slopes of the country.
Excepting on the west fronts of Pomona, Hoy and Rousay, the coast-line of the islands is deeply indented, and the islands themselves are divided from each other by straits generally called sounds or firths, though off the north-east of Hoy the designation Bring Deeps is used, south of Pomona is Scapa Flow and to the south-west of Eday is found the Fall of Warness.
The rule of Alstahoug extended over all the neighbouring districts, including Dass's native island of Hero, and its privileges were accompanied by great perils, for it was necessary to be constantly crossing stormy firths of sea.