It has always been politic for powerful states to facilitate and hide schemes of aggrandizement under euphemistic expressions; to cloak subjection or dependence by describing it in words inoffensive or strictly applicable to other relations.
The tithes were originally based on one-tenth of the agricultural produce of the country, but this proportion was gradually raised under the euphemistic pretence of " public instruction," but really, under financial pressure, to 12% and again in 1900 for military " equipments " (Tejhizat-i-'Askeriyeh) by a further 2% to 122%.
The kind or gracious one - doubtless a euphemistic name - has his prototype in the old fierce storm-god Rudra, the" Roarer,"with certain additional features derived from other deities, especially Pushan, the guardian of flocks and bestower of prosperity, worked up therewith.
It is said that on this occasion they were first called Eumenides ("the kindly"), a euphemistic variant of their real name.
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