Insect-eating birds soon learn to associate distastefulness with the size, form and colour of the bees, and consequently leave them alone after one or more trials.
But if all the species in question resemble each other the resemblance will be mutually beneficial to them because the association between the two attributes they have in common, namely distastefulness and a particular scheme of colour, will be rapidly established.
Experiments to test distastefulness have also been made with various kinds of insectivorous Arthropoda, like spiders and mantises.
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