Among green plants the symbionts ~include Conifers, Orchids, Heaths, Oaks, Poplars and Beeches, though all do not derive equal advantages from the association.
This may be due to frost, especially in thin-barked trees, and often occurs in beeches, pears, &c.; or it may result from bruising by wind, hailstones, gun-shot wounds in coverts, &c., the latter of course very local.
There were oaks, beeches (scarcely distinguishable from existing species), birches, planes and willows (one closely related to the living Salix candida), laurels, represented by Sassafras and Cinnamomum, magnolias and tulip trees (Liriodendron), myrtles, Liquidambar, Diospyros and ivy.
To take, for example, one of the most characteristic features of the Palaearctic region, its catkin-bearing glpridiini,c frpec ~,, North Amnt4ra ~ fnA nrnrgar~, the came a-pliers as in the Old Worldoaks, chestnuts, beeches, hazels, hornbeams, birches, alders, willows and poplars.
The crater is densely overgrown with oaks and beeches which harbour wild boars and wolves.
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