By the 14th century Averroism was the common leaven of philosophy; John Baconthorpe is the chief of Averroists, and Walter Burley has similar tendencies.
Alessandro Achillini, the persistent philosophical adversary of Pomponazzi, both at Padua and subsequently at Bologna, attempted, along with other moderate but not brilliant Averroists, to accommodate their philosophical theory with the requirements of Catholicism.
Much of this last stage of his life was occupied at Padua in a controversy with the Averroists, whom he regarded as dangerous antagonists both to sound religion and to sound culture.
With this double ideal in view, Petrarch poured scorn upon the French physicians and the Italian Averroists for their illiberal philistinism, no less than for their materialistic impiety.
Three polemical works require mention: Contra cujusdam anonymi Galli calumnies apologia, Contra medicum quendam invectivarum libri, and De sui ipsius et multorum ignorantia - controversial and sarcastic compositions, which grew out of Petrarch's quarrels with the physicians of Avignon and the Averroists of Padua.