The palatines are long, always fused anteriorly with the premaxilla, and fre quently with the maxillo-palatine processes; posteriorly they slide upon the presphenoidal rostrum, and articulate in most birds with the pterygoids; they form the greater part of the palatal roof and border the choanae or inner nares.
Where locomotive appendages (the parapodia of the Polychaeta) exist, they are never jointed, as always in the Arthropoda; nor are they modified anteriorly to form jaws, as in that group.
Thus, in Octochaetus multiporus a large nephridium opens anteriorly into the buccal cavity, and numerous nephridia in the same worm evacuate their contents into the rectum.
The anteriorly-opening and usually very large nephridia are not uncommon, and have been termed "peptonephridia."
Associated with these glands are frequently to be found bundles or pairs of long and variously modified setae which are termed penial setae,to distinguish them from other setae sometimes but not always associated with rather similarglandswhich are found anteriorly to these, and often in the immediate neighbourhood of the spermathecae; the latter are spoken of as genital setae.
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