The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud the Ghaznevid, and proceeded westwards to Urjensh in the modern Khiva, where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend.
Archbishop Poppo and his successors in the i 1 th and 12th centuries extended the cathedral westwards and added an apse at each end.
At the close of the glacial epoch the north Asiatic flora spread westwards into Europe and intermingled with the surviving vegetation.
South of the lake two ranges of the Tian-shan, separated by the valley of the Naryn, stretch in the same direction, lifting up their icy peaks to 16,000 and 18,000 ft.; while westwards from the lake the precipitous slopes of the Alexander chain, 9000 to io,000 ft.