The Spartans failed to safeguard Heraclea against the Oetaeans and Thessalians, and for a short time were displaced by the Thebans (420).
Strabo mentions a tradition that Ravenna was founded by Thessalians, who afterwards, finding themselves pressed by the Etrurians, called in their Umbrian neighbours and eventually departed, leaving the city to their allies.
But he had many enemies at home; in 383 he was driven out by the Illyrians, but in the following year, with the aid of the Thessalians, he recovered his kingdom.
From the Thessalians the Macedonian king, as overlord, drew some thousand excellent troopers.
The cult of Athena Itonia, whose earliest seat appears to have been amongst the Thessalians, who used her name as a battle-cry, made its way to Coronea in Boeotia, where her sanctuary was the seat of the Pamboeotian confederacy.