An example of taxonomy is the way living beings are divided up into Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
An example of taxonomy is the Dewey Decimal system - the way libraries classify non-fiction books by division and subdivisions. The number assigned, combined with the first three letters of the author's last name, become the call number used for deciding the order of arrangment of books on the library shelf.
An example of taxonomy is the way a website classifies and organizes available resources and information to help navigation within a website.
A taxonomy of literary genres.