The royal library (1798) contains upwards of 500,000 volumes, including some early illuminated MSS., a valuable collection of coins and medals and some fine antique gems. In addition to the royal palace already mentioned, there are the palaces of the queen-dowager, of the prince of Orange (founded about 1720 by Count Unico of Wassenaar Twiekels) and of the prince von Wied, dating from 1825, and containing some good early Dutch and Flemish masters.
Educated as a Catholic by his mother, he was on the death of Stephen Bathory elected king of Poland (August 19, 1587) chiefly through the efforts of the Polish chancellor, Jan Zamoyski, and of his own aunt, Anne, queen-dowager of Poland, who lent the chancellor 10o,000 gulden to raise troops in defence of her nephew's cause.
Until the Restoration he was placed under the care, first of Lord Crofts, by whose name he was known, and then of the queen-dowager, receiving his education to the age of nine from Roman Catholics, but thenceforward from Protestant tutors.
Was compelled by failing health to appoint a regent, and chose his sister, Catherine of Braganza, queen-dowager of England.
The new queen being a minor, her mother, the queen-dowager Emma, became regent.