The anomaly AFQ of Q at any moment is called the mean anomaly, and the angle QFP by which the true anomaly exceeds it at that moment is the equation of the centre.

A similar expression can be found for Q'P - Q"A; and thus, if Q' A =v, Q' AO = where v =a cos (0", we get - - -AQ' = a sin w (sin 4 -sink") - - 8a sin 4 w(sin cktan 4 + sin 'tan cl)').

It was by its constant reliance on monachism that the papacy of the 12th century had attained this result, and the popes of that period were especially fortunate in having for their champion the monk St Bernard, whose admirable qualities enabled him to dominate public q P opinion.

Wars and con conquests between Greeks and Greeks, especially on the q p y part of Syracuse, though not wanting, have been on the whole less constant than in old Greece.

This point settled, uniformity is q P y a location.