A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
Former territory in central & NC Italy, ruled by the papacy from the 8th cent. until 1870
One of the major historical states of Italy before the peninsula was unified in 1861. It comprised those territories over which the Pope was the ruler in a civil as well as a spiritual sense.
Messina fell on the 10th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria, secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was fitting out an expedition against the papal states.
Until the union of Italy they were comprised in Tuscany and the southern Papal States.
Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
over the Papal States was admitted; and Italian affairs were arranged much as they were at Campo Formio: Modena and Tuscany now reverted to French control, their former rulers being promised compensation in Germany.
This aim prompted the annexation of Tuscany, and his intervention in the affairs of the Papal States.