The leaves of most mosses are flat plates, each consisting of a single layer of square or oblong assimilating (chlorophyllous) cells.
Grasses, mosses and Arctic flowering plants are abundant, but there are no trees excepting occasional dwarf willows.
Ferns and mosses are almost confined to the higher ranges.
Mosses when growing in tufts should be gathered just before the capsules have become brown, divided into small flat portions, and pressed lightly in drying paper.
~any Algae, lichens, and mosses are included among lithophytes, ai id also Saxifraga Aizoon, S.