From the notion of sin - treated in its jural aspect - Aquinas passes naturally to the discussion of Law.
The ideas above expressed were not peculiar to Grotius; in particular the doctrine of the " fundamental pact " as the jural basis of government had long been maintained, especially in England, where the constitution historically established readily suggested such a compact.
In this way the utilitarian method is freed from the subversive tendencies which Butler and others had discerned in it; as used by Paley, it merely explains the current moral and jural distinctions, exhibits the obvious basis of expediency which supports most of the received rules of law and morality and furnishes a simple solution, in harmony with common sense, of some perplexing casuistical questions.
It is true that Hegel regards the conscious effort to realize one's own conception of good as a higher stage of moral development than the mere conformity to the jural rules establishing property, maintaining contract and allotting punishment to crime, in which the universal will is first expressed; since in such conformity this will is only accomplished accidentally by the outward concurrence of individual wills, and is not essentially realized in any of them.
If, on what is called the "jural" theory, these laws are regarded as deriving their authority from an external source, the operation of conscience is so far limited.