He was extremely superstitious, and believed in invocations of the dead.
The ease with which explicit invocations attach themselves to many of these apparently self-contained forms proves that there is not necessarily any perceived difference of kind, and that implicit address as towards a "something not-ourselves" is often the true designation of the latter.
Their language is vague and allegorical, full of allusions and pious Mussulman invocations; the author continually announces that he is about to speak without mystery or reserve, but all the same never gives any precise details of the secrets he professes to reveal.
The name Vispered, meaning " all the chiefs " (vispe ratavo), has reference to the spiritual heads of the religion of Ormuzd, invocations to whom form the contents of the first chapter of the book.
They contain invocations of separate Izads, or angels, number 21 in all, and are of widely divergent extent and antiquity.