Our final symposium of the year was on inflammatory bowel disease crossroads of microbes, epithelium and immune systems.
Toxic substances may disturb normal cell function, damage cell membranes, interfere with enzyme and immune systems and RNA and DNA activity.
In a comparative test, they raised mice with and without immune systems to see how blood fluke populations would thrive.
In response to an allergen entering the body, mast cells in our immune systems release histamine, the substance that causes allergic symptoms.
Cloned pigs, sheep and cows have malfunctioning immune systems.