In Hagerstown Valley are rich red or yellow limestone-clay soils.
The Indian-corn, wheat and livestock sections of the state, are in the Piedmont Plateau, the Hagerstown Valley and the central portion of the East Shore.
The largest secondary centres are Cumberland, Hagerstown and Frederick the total value of whose factory products in 1905 was less than $10,000,000.
The chief cities are Baltimore, pop. (1910) 55 8, 4 8 5, Cumberland 21,839, Hagerstown 16,507, Frederick 10,411 and Annapolis 8609.