There are four kinds of soil in Northern Europe: glacial till, alluvial, loess and geest.
The natural division into dunes, geest grounds, and clay and low fen holds for South as well as for North Holland.
Geest is found particularly in the north-eastern part of the state; it covers less than i% of the area of the state.
There are three natural divisions - foreshore and sand-dunes, inner dunes and the geest grounds, and low fens and clay lands.
In the depressions of the dunes and on' the geest grounds at their foot, small woods have been planted in places, and in this sheltered strip market-gardening and horticulture are practised.