Baumgarten of Halle (1706-1757) in disengaging the current dogmatic theology from its many scholastic and mystical excrescences, and thus paved a way for a revolution in theology.
The early authorities represent the Stigmata not as bleeding wounds, the holes as it were of the nails, but as fleshy excrescences resembling in form and colour the nails, the head on the palm of the hand, and on the back as it were a nail hammered down.
Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
Excrescences may be divided into those occurring on herbaceous tissues, of which Galls are well-known examples, and those found on the woody stem, branches, &c., and themselves eventually woody, of which Burrs of various kinds afford common illustrations.