In 1865 Florence became the capital of the kingdom of Italy, but after the occupation of Rome in 1870 during the FrancoPrussian war, the capital was transferred to the Eternal City (1871).
Lugudunum controlled the trade of its two rivers, and that which passed from northern Gaul to the Mediterranean or vice versa; it had a mint; it was the capital of all northern Gaul, despite its position in the south, and its wealth was such that, when Rome was burnt in Nero's reign, its inhabitants subscribed largely to the relief of the Eternal City.
in 1305 marks the beginning of a new era in the history of the papacy; for this pope, formerly archbishop of Bordeaux, remained in France, without once crossing the threshold of the Eternal City.
His greatest success, however, was gained in the Eternal City itself; for he contrived, after many vicissitudes, to induce the Romans to annul their republican constitution and acknowledge the papal supremacy, even in municipal matters.
In consequence of the absence of the pope, the Eternal City was once more little better than a ruin; and the work of restoration was immediately begun by Eugenius.