Hence the total **electric flux** due to a charge Q through an enclosing surface is 41rQ, and therefore is zero through one enclosing no electricity.

Then the quantity E cos OdS is the product of the normal component of the force and an element of the surface, and if this is summed up all over the surface we have the total **electric flux** or induction through the surface, or the surface integral of the normal force mathematically expressed by JE cos OdS, provided that the dielectric constant of the medium is unity.

If, however, the unit point charge were defined to be that which produces a unit of **electric flux** through a circumscribing spherical surface or the electric force at distance r defined to be 1/47rr2, many theorems would be enunciated in simpler forms.