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The area of the complete curve is 2a 2, and the length of any arc may be expressed in the form f(1 - x 4) - i dx, an elliptic integral sometimes termed the lemniscatic integral.
Consider the particles which occupy a thin stratum dx perpendicular to the primary ray x.
For instance, by equating coefficients of or in the expansions of (I +x) m+n and of (I dx) m .
When, as in the application to rectangular or circular apertures, the form is symmetrical with respect to the axes both of x and y, S = o, and C reduces to C = ff cos px cos gy dx dy,.
It is thus sufficient to determine the intensity along the axis of p. Putting q = o, we get C = ffcos pxdxdy=2f+Rcos 'px 1/ (R2 - x2)dx, R being the radius of the aperture.