From 1844 Brazil was free from intestine commotions, and had resumed its activity.
The violent political commotions of the next few years allowed but little opportunity for the prosecution of serious studies; the subsequent quieter state of the country, and gradual re-establishment of the language as a means of education, were, however, more favourable to the development of scientific knowledge.
Wars and civil commotions occupied the period of his minority and Savoy lost Freiburg and many other territories.
From 1437 till 1443 it had its seat at Greifswald in consequence of commotions at Rostock; and in 1760 it was again removed, on this occasion to Butzow.
In 1398, when Timur was more than sixty years of age, Farishta tells us that, "informed of the commotions and civil wars of India," he "began his expedition into that country," and on the 12th of September "arrived on the banks of the Indus."