The soil is a clayey or a sandy loam, and very fertile except in the Usar tracts, where there is a saline efflorescence.
The buildings, which are mostly of red brick, are conspicuous against the gray clayey and sandy soil.
The low clayey or sandy shores are subject to erosion by waves.
The soil is exceedingly rich and well adapted to all kinds of agricultural purposes, and for the most part is composed of a rich black loam reposing on a grey sandy clay, though occasionally it exhibits a light yellow clayey texture.
The ground was originally a Roman Cemetery, and about the year 1576 bricks were largely made from the clayey earth, the recollection of which is kept alive in the name of Brick Lane.