Other characteristic Carnivora are civets, various ichneumons, and the benturong (Arctictis).
The same conclusion is indicated by the absence from the Moluccas and Celebes of various other Mammals, Quadrumana, Carnivora, Insectivora and Ruminants, which abound in the western part of the Archipelago.
The true Carnivora are three only, the bear, the dog and the marten.
As some compensation for its paucity of useful animals and food plants, New Zealand was, of course, free from wild carnivora, has no snakes, and only one poisonous insect, the katipo, a timid little spider found on certain sea-beaches.
Food competition among mammals, especially intensified on islands, and the introduction of Carnivora constitute another class of causes.