In July of that year the sultan Abd-ul-Hamid capitulated to the Young Turks and restored by Irade (July 24) the constitution which he had granted in December 1876 and suspended on the 14th of February 1878.
On the following day Harper's Ferry capitulated after a weak defence.
At this period the religion of Mahomet was spreading over the east, and in 637 the caliph Omar marched on Jerusalem, which capitulated after a siege of four months.
On the 4th of July in that year a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated on the following day.
A force of Tuscan volunteers was attacked by a superior body of Austrians at Curtatone and Montanaro and defeated after a gallant resistance on the 27th of May; Charles Albert, after wasting precious time round Peschiera, which capitulated on the 3oth of May, defeated Radetzky at Goito.