Other industries include iron and brass foundries, engineering, manufactures of woollens and calicoes, silk-weaving, paper-making, oil and fireclay.
The export trade is chiefly with Russia from Meshed-i-Sar, the principal port of the province, to Baku, where European goods are taken in exchange for the white and coloured calicoes, caviare, rice, fruits and raw cotton of Mazandaran.
The ancient industry was woollen, but soon after the invention of the spinning frame the cotton trade was introduced, and as early as 1769 the weaving of ginghams, nankeens and calicoes was carried on, and the weaving of cotton yarn by machinery soon became the staple industry.
Cotton stuffs, calicoes and grey linen are among the goods most in demand; they are exported to the neighbouring coast of Anatolia, between Budrum and Adalia, and thence conveyed into the interior.
It is the chief centre in Germany of the cotton, wool, silk and velvet manufactures, and of upholstery, drapery and haberdashery of all descriptions, of printed calicoes, of Turkey-red and other dyes, and of fine chemicals.