During the Hungarian campaign the Shia sectaries had been encouraged to revolt, and the Persians had overrun Azerbaijan and recaptured Tabriz.
The war lasted for twelve years, during which Tiflis, Shirvan and Daghestan were taken; finally Shah Abbas established himself on the Persian throne and in 1590 made peace with Turkey, who retained her conquests in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Shirvan.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
There at first he helped Denikin to maintain the independence of the Caucasus, but when the latter made a political approach towards the Entente, Enver left him, stayed for a short time in Azerbaijan, and was mixed up 1 A German version was issued in 1918.
They are divided into the Persian Nestorians of the plain of Azerbaijan, and the Turkish Nestorians, inhabiting chiefly the sanjak of Hakkiari in the vilayet of Van, who are subdivided into the Rayat or subject, and the Ashiret or tribal, the latter being semi-independent in their mountain fastnesses.