Origin of AugustusL, August
a masculine name: dim. Gus; fem. Augusta; equiv. Fr. Auguste, Ger. August, It. Augusto
(Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) 63 - 14; 1st Rom. emperor (27 - 14): grandnephew of Julius Caesar: also called Octavian
63 BC&NDASH;AD 14
First emperor of Rome (27 BC-AD 14) and grandnephew of Julius Caesar. Born Gaius Octavius, he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus—often referred to simply as Octavian in English texts—in 44 after Caesar's assassination. He defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 and subsequently gained control over Rome and its extensive territories. In 27 he was named emperor and given the honorary title Augustus.
From Latin augustus (“majestic”).
- After the Social War it became a municipium and under Augustus a colony.
- Now in 18 B.C. Augustus carried the Leges Tuliae, which offered inducements to marriage and imposed disabilities upon the celibate.
- At the end of Heraclius' reign he obtained through his mother's influence the title of Augustus (638), and after his father's death was proclaimed joint emperor with his half-brother Constantine III.
- Augustus gave it back to Naples in exchange for Capri.
- The arrangements thus established by Augustus continued almost unchanged till the time of Constantine, and formed the basis of all subsequent administrative divisions until the fall of the Western empire.